THE JUST WAR THEORY
This post is from The Nemesis Book 2018. www.amazon.com/VICTOR-LEINONEN/e/B07FLQ8LYN/
“The just war theory is central to this example. When is justified for a State government toemploy military force against another State?
Is there any difference in the Spirit of the Natural Law principles between a small nation of 3 million, and the national population of 150 million?
In the Natural Law theory, the principles are constant, regardless of the population size. The law of the jungle logic may see that size difference as an opportunity for the bigger to exploit the smaller.
“Just war theory today is a composite that has evolved from ideas developed by various religious figures. In the 5th century, St. Augustine discussed in the City of God the circumstances under which killing could be justified, and empires legitimately expanded.” (Encyclopedia, Just War Theory, 426 AD)
In the 13th century, St. Thomas Aquinas laid out a more elaborate just war doctrine in his Summa Theologica. He wrote that three conditions were necessary to make a war just:
- a competent authority must order it;
- the cause must be just;
- moreover, the combatants must have “a right intention so that they intend the advancement of good or the avoidance of evil.
Modern just war guidance involves both the decision to go to war (jus ad bellum) and how to fight one (jus in bello). This latter set of criteria focuses on proportionality (how much force), targeting (avoiding non- combatants), and means (avoiding certain classes of weapons).
WARS OF CHOICE
“The question is whether wars of choice can also be justifiable. By definition, wars of choice tend toinvolve less than vital interests and the existence of alternative policies.Vietnam, Kosovo, and Bosnia were all wars of choice. So too was the second Iraqwar which began in 2003.
Are wars of choice ever justifiable? The answer is “yes,” when using force is the best available policy option. The argument that the goal is worthy, and that war is the best option for pursuing it should be strong enough to garner considerable domestic and international support. More important, the case should be persuasive that using military force will accomplish more good for more people at a lower cost than diplomacy, sanctions, or inaction.
However, what about the future? The concept of justifiable war is not merely one for history. Iran, North Korea, Pakistan, Afghanistan, all are potential theaters for new or intensified U.S. military action. The question is not whether they would constitute just wars. That is too impractical a standard. The question in the real world is whether they would be justifiable to Congress, to the American people, to the world. It is a question the next President will have to answer.” (Richard.N.Hass, 2009)
AMERICAN PRONOUNCE WAR
Speech by the American President Roosevelt.
President Franklin Roosevelt called the unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor a “date which will live in infamy,” in a famous address to the nation delivered on December 8, 1941, after Japan’s deadly surprise attack against U.S. naval and military forces in Hawaii. He also asked the Congress to declare war on Japan.
“The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions that were planned in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.
All eight U.S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but the USS Arizona were later raised, and six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war. The Japanese also sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, and one minelayer. One hundred eighty-eight U.S. aircraft were destroyed; 2,403 Americans were killed, and 1,178 others were wounded.
The surprise attack came as a profound shock to the American people and led directly to the American entry into World War II in both the Pacific and European theaters. The following day, December 8, the United States declared war on Japan, “Yesterday, December 7th, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.
The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific.
Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in the American island of Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to our Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. Moreover, while this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack.
It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it evident that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago.
During the intervening time, the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.
The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. I regret to tell you that very many American lives have been lost. Also, American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.
Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong. Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands. Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island.
Moreover, this morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.
Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday and today speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and thoroughly understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.
As Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense. However, always will our whole nation remember the character of the onslaught against us.
No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.
I believe that I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will make it very sure that this form of treachery shall never again endanger us. Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory, and our interests are in grave danger.
With confidence in our armed forces, with the unbounded determination of our people, we will gain the inevitable triumph—so help us, God.
I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7th, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire.”
SOME OF THE CRITICAL POINTS IN THE SPEECH ARE:
- Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering
- All eight U.S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk.
- All but the USS Arizona were raised, and six were returned to service and went on to fighting the war.
- The Japanese also sank or damaged three cruisers,
- three destroyers,
- an anti-aircraft training ship
- one minelayer.
- One hundred eighty-eight U.S. aircraft destroyed;
- 2,403Americans killed
- 1,178 others were wounded.
PARALLEL COMPARISON OF THE UNPROVOKED AGGRESSION
- The Soviet Union November 30, 1939-40, initiated the aggressive war against Finland.
- Moreover, the 1941 Pearl Harbor surprise attack by Japan.
Which of the two events came first? Could it be that the US Allies indifference and inaction to the Nazi Germany & USSR aggression in 1939-41 was viewed by Japan as justifiable? Free for all? Using the logic of, what is good for one, is suitable for all?
Which of the two claimed more lives? Caused more damage?
The Imperial Super States, France, Britain, Russia and the United States have highly polished porcelain over their national pride ego. Once that pride is cracked the declaration of war follows. The smaller States are much humbler; they have human skin in the game. They are often bruised, lacerated and scarred, but they must keep going regardless and suffer silently because the Imperials use the Victors justice to manipulate the ordinary people of the land and the smaller states.
How does the above destruction compare with the aggressive war against peace? That the Soviet Union committed on Poland September 1939? Moreover, the aggressive war against peace in Finland in November 1939? Was not the Soviet Union aggression sufficiently extreme to reveal their intentions to exploit others territory and property, to deny people their right to life, liberty, and property?
Here are the facts:
- Soviets cross over 1100 + km border,
- Used 21 divisions, totaling some 450,000 men in the invasion
- Air bombed the capital city Helsinki,
- Inflicting substantial damage and casualties to cities. 1000 civilians died.
- months war 25,904 dead or missing
- 43,557 wounded
- 800–1,100 captured
- 20–30 tanks destroyed
- 62 aircraft destroyed
- 70,000 total human casualties
President ofFinland, Kyösti Kallio New Year speech 1940, four weeks after the AggressiveSoviet war against peace. The following page is a copy of a speech script, fromthe New Year 1940, given by the President of Finland, Kyösti Kallio. Nationalburden of the aggressive war at the East front lines. The aggressive war thatthe Soviet Stalin had initiated on November 30. 1939.”
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